Labeling and Regulations
Safety Testing and Regulation of Genetically Engineered Foods, describing the deficiencies in the US regulatory system; published in the peer-reviewed journal Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews.
A 2009 paper analyzes how safety testing under current GMO regulations can overlook subchronic and chronic health effects; published in the International Journal of Biological Sciences.
Holes in the Biotech Safety Net, an analysis of the failure of FDA oversight of GMO safety data, including how GMO developers fail to respond to the agency’s requests for data, data submitted was filled with errors, data failed to address serious food safety concerns, data lacked detail sufficient to make safety assessments, and more; by a Senior Scientist at the Center for Science in the Public Interest.
A 2010 Reuters special report analyzes problems in the US regulatory approach to GMO crops.
Regulatory Regimes for Transgenic Crops, correspondence to the journal Nature Biotechnology.
Why We Need Labeling of Genetically Engineered Food, by Consumers Union (the nonprofit publisher of Consumer Reports magazine). A 2012 Consumers Union statement on labeling also explores how labeling is backed by international food labeling rules.
An analysis of FDA’s failed GMO policy: No Labels, No Tests, No Problem.
Deficiencies in Federal Regulatory Oversight of Genetically Engineered Crops, briefing by the Institute for Social Ecology Biotechnology Project.
The U.S. government’s 1986 “Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology” outlines its hands-off approach to GMO foods, stating that, in contrast to traditional breeding, GMOs “enable more precise genetic modifications, and therefore hold the promise for exciting innovation and new areas of commercial opportunity.” The Framework also noted that no new rules needed to be developed to protect the public from the risks of GMO foods, and that this policy would “provide more immediate regulatory protection and certainty for the industry.” Later, welcoming the FDA’s proposal for allowing GMOs on the market with no required safety testing or labeling, then Vice-President Dan Quayle calls the policy “regulatory relief” for the GMO industry.
Why you can’t detect GMO foods by PLU labels – and how you can avoid them.